WHAT ARE DEADLY—
When the War on Cancer was declared in the early 1970s, the average five-year relative survival rate for all cancers was only approximately 50 percent. Thanks in large part to research funded by the National Institutes of Health, and in particular the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the average overall five-year survival rate is now approximately 69 percent. However, there are a number of cancers that still fall below 50 percent survival. These cancers are considered the "deadliest," or "recalcitrant," cancers.
This definition has been codified and is part of the Recalcitrant Cancer Research Act of 2012. This bill, which was signed into law on January 2, 2013, directs the NCI to develop scientific frameworks for the deadliest cancers, starting with pancreatic and lung cancers. These frameworks were introduced in March and June of 2014, respectively. The release of these scientific frameworks represents an important step forward. Other cancers that fall under this definition can be added at the NCI Director’s discretion. Read more about the legislation.
There are many sub‐types of cancers that fall under this definition. However, it is important to realize that nearly half of the 600,920 cancer deaths in 2017 are estimated to be caused by seven site-specific forms of cancer with five-year relative survival rates of less than 50 percent. While there is still much more that needs to be done to improve outcomes for myeloma patients, it is worth noting that in 2017 the five-year survival rate for myeloma has increased to 50 percent, meaning that this disease has "graduated" out of the deadliest cancers.